BENTUK TINDAK TUTUR DIREKTIF KESANTUNAN BERBAHASA MAHASISWA DI LINGKUNGAN PGSD JAWA TENGAH: TINJAUAN SOSIOPRAGMATIK

St.Y. Slamet, Suwarto W.A.

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan (1) bentuk tindak tutur direktif kesantunan dan ketidaksantunan; (2) prinsip tindak tutur direktif; (3) strategi tindak tutur direktif, dan (4) urutan kesantunan bentuk tutur berdasarkan persepsi mahasiswa. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di PGSD Jawa Tengah mulai Januari-November 2012. Penelitian ini bersifat naturalistik dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ialah mahasiswa dan dosen dengan teknik purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi, wawancara, dan angket. Validasi memanfaatkan trianggulasi sumber dan metode. Analisis data menerapkan analisis deskriptif model interaktif. Berdasarkan pembahasan, dapat disimpulkan bahwa bentuk santun tuturan direktif mahasiswa dapat (1) berupa penanda, kaidah bahasa, dan perilaku santun; (2) berupa maksim kearifan, maksim kemurahan hati, maksim pujian, maksim kerendahan hati, maksim kesepakatan, dan maksim simpati; (3) memanfaatkan strategi positif dan negatif. Urutan kesantunannya ialah (a) rumusan saran (37,5%), (b) rumusan pertanyaan (15%), (c) isyarat kuat (12,5%), (d) isyarat halus (10%), (e) pertanyaan berpagar (6%), 0 pernyataan keinginan (3,75%), (g) pernyataan eksplisit (3%), (h) pernyataan imperatif (1,25%), dan (i) modus keharusan (1%).

 

The goals of this research are to find and to describe: (1) the form of direct speaking in the language politeness, (2) the principle of direct speaking in the language politeness, (3) the strategy of direct speaking in the language politeness, (4) the ranking of direct speaking in the language politeness based student perception. This research held in the PGSD program of Central Java from January-November 2012. This is a naturalistic research and it uses the qualitative descriptive approach. The subject are college students and lecturers with the technique is the purposive sampling. The collecting data are observation, interview and questioner. The validity is by using source triangulation and method. The data analysis is by using the interactive descriptive analysis. This research can be concluded: (1) the form of politeness speaking can be seen based on the sign, the form of polite language, and the polite behavior; (2) the ideal of speaking form which is applied such as: the act maxim, the generosity maxim, the approbation maxim, the modesty maxim, the agreement maxim, and the sympathy maxim; while there are also the principle to prevent the use of bad word by using the eufism and honorific; (3) there are two strategies of politeness language, as follows positive and negative strategy; and (4) the sequence of politeness based on the students perception: (a) the advice pattern (37,5%), (b) the question pattern (15%), (c) the strong sign (1.2,5%), (d) the soft sign (10%), (e) the limited question (6%), (f) the demand statement (3,75%), (g) the explicit statement (3%), (h) the imperative statement (1,25%), and (i) the a must question (1%)


Keywords


tindak tutur direktif; kesantunan berbahasa; ketidaksantunan berbahasa; sosiopragmatik; the directive spoken behavior; the politeness in language; the impoliteness language sociopragmatic

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v41i1.65

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