WACANA NOVEL DALAM BAHASA JAWA: KAJIAN POLA-POLA SUPERSTRUKTUR

Edi setiyanto

Abstract


Kajian ini bertujuan merumuskan pola-pola superstruktur novel dalam bahasa Jawa. Kajian ini dipandang perlu untuk (1) inventarisasi pola-pola superstruktur novel Jawa dan (2) dasar perumusan keunikan pola sebagai cermin kespesifikan pola pikir masyarakat Jawa. Kajian ini menggunakan teori struktural. Novel dipahami sebagai wacana yang tersusun dari dua unsur, yaitu (1) pesan atau isi yang berupa rangkaian peristiwa dan (2) hal ada (existent), yaitu fakta-fakta di luar peristiwa (karakter dan latar). Sebagai struktur, novel terorganisasi secara linear (mikro dan makrostruktur) serta hierarkis (superstruktur). Penelitian bersifat deskriptif kualitatif. Analisis memanfaatkan kaidah makro yang berupa pelesapan, perampatan, dan pengonstruksian. Data kajian berupa enam novel dalam bahasa Jawa yang terbit dalam kurun waktu 19552008. Berdasarkan data, diperoleh tiga pola superstruktur, yaitu (1) alur tunggal lurus, (2) alur tunggal bolak-balik, dan (3) alur ganda bolak-balik.

This study is meant to formulate the pattern of superstructure in the Javanese novels. This study is considerably required for in order to (1) make an inventory of the pattern of superstructure in the Javanese novels and (2) outline an underlying formula of the Javanese novels distinctive patterns as the mirror of specificity of the Javaneses ways of thinking. This study applies structural theory. ln this case, the novel is viewed as discourse that consists of two elements, i.e. (1) the message or content in the series of events and (2) the existent, i.e. the facts outside the events (the characters and settings). As for the structure, novel is arranged in linear (micro- and macrostructure) and hierarchical (superstructure) organizations. This is a qualitative descriptive rcsearch. The analysis utilizes "macro rules" as in the forms of ellipsis, generalization and construction. As for the data, this research employs six Javanese novels that appeared in the ranges of time 1955-2008. The data shows three patterns of superstructures, i.e. (1) straight singleplot, (2) back and forth single-plot, and (3) back and forth dauble-plot.


Keywords


makrostruktur; superstruktur; alur; permasalahan; pola; macrostructure; superstructure; plot; problems; pattern.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v39i1.24

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